Sometimes men face such an unpleasant disease as bacterial prostatitis. In order to be able to start treatment in good time, it is important to know which signs can be used to determine the disease and which diagnostics and therapy are required.
Bacterial prostatitis is an infectious disease of the prostate. Symptoms of the disease include pain in the perineum, an increase in body temperature, intoxication of the body, and other signs. Such a condition may require an emergency hospital admission as it can endanger the health and life of the patient.
Forms of bacterial prostatitis
Depending on the course and the manifested symptoms, bacterial prostatitis is divided into two forms - acute and chronic.
The acute form manifests itself unexpectedly and is accompanied by various unpleasant symptoms. The acute form of bacterial prostatitis requires immediate medical attention. This pathological process is provoked by Escherichia coli, staphylococci, enterobacteria.
Acute prostatitis is easy to diagnose with laboratory tests. Severe symptoms and clinical picture enable an accurate diagnosis. Treat this form of prostatitis in a complex way with drugs and physical therapy.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis has a pathogenic agent that can be determined through laboratory tests and studies. The main pathogens are gonococci, chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma. The inflammatory process can also be caused by tuberculosis bacteria or fungi of the genus Candida if the man is infected with HIV.
Types of bacterial prostatitis
Bacterial prostatitis is classified according to the type of pathogen:
- tubercular (Koch's bacillus);
- Gonorrhea (gonococci);
- Mushroom (various types of mushrooms);
- Chlamydia (chlamydia);
- viral (causative agents of herpes, human papillomavirus, influenza);
- mixed (several different infections).
What exactly the pathogen was can only be determined under laboratory conditions, since the symptoms are the same for all.
Causes and Risk Factors
Bacteria invade the prostate and cause acute or chronic prostatitis. Sexually transmitted diseases can also cause this disease. In some cases, the cause cannot be determined.
Causative agentsbacterial prostatitis are considered:
- fecal enterococci;
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Possiblemicrobiological reasonsProstatitis are:
- Staphylococci (saprophytic, golden, epidermal);
- Genital mycoplasma;
- Chlamydia trachomatis;
TORisk factorsInfection of the prostate with the subsequent development of the inflammatory process in the form of one or another form of bacterial prostatitis are:
- intraprostatic reflux (reflux of urine into the ducts of the prostate when urinating);
- Pelvic injury;
- unprotected anal sex;
- Urinary tract infection;
- with an indwelling urethral catheter or intermittent urinary catheterization;
- transurethral diagnostic and therapeutic interventions;
- past prostate biopsy.
Bacterial prostatitis symptoms
Usually, symptoms of bacterial prostatitis are so severe that it is difficult to ignore them. Signs of illness are:
- high body temperature (in the anus is usually higher than in the armpits);
- Fever and chills;
- difficult and painful urination, especially at night;
- possible development of constipation due to enlargement of the prostate;
- Lower body pain (lower back, perineum, lower abdomen);
- general poisoning of the body;
- Discharge from the urethra and blood in the semen.
Stages of bacterial prostatitis
The clinical picture of bacterial prostatitis manifests itself depending on the stage of the disease and the degree of involvement of prostate tissue in the inflammatory process. Share:
- Primary or catarrhal prostatitis.It is characterized by inflammation of the walls of the prostate. It is quite possible to cure it with antibiotics in 10 days.
- Secondary or follicular.It is characterized by the formation of abscesses in the glandular tissue. It is accompanied by a high fever. This form is also effectively treated with antibacterial drugs.
- Tertiary or parenchyma.The pathological process at this stage extends to the entire organ - the prostate increases in size, swells and changes in shape. If not treated in a timely manner, the tertiary stage can develop into chronic prostatitis.
Possible complications and consequences for men
The consequences and complications of bacterial prostatitis include:
- Vesiculitis (inflammation of the seminal vesicles) - manifested by groin pain, premature ejaculation, painful erection;
- Colliculitis (inflammation of the seminal tubercle) - differs in several symptoms - burning and tickling of the posterior urethra, painful sensations during orgasm, blood in the semen;
- violation of potency;
- Sclerosis of the prostate;
- Prostate cyst;
- Abscess of the prostate;
- Stones in the prostate.
Chronic pelvic pain syndrome is one of the most serious consequences of chronic prostatitis.
Asymptomatic inflammation is the mildest form in terms of the absence of symptoms. With this type of prostatitis, the development of complications from the reproductive function is diagnosed.
Is Bacterial Prostatitis Dangerous For Women?
Prostatitis in women does not occur, but its serious consequences are common. When a man has bacterial prostatitis, it is simply irresponsible to say that a woman is in no danger: chlamydia, ureaplasma, trichomonas, mycoplasma, gonococcus, gardnerella, and other infections she receives from a partner make a serious oneDanger to a woman and lead to the development of various gynecological diseases.
Which doctor treats?
urologistis considered the main specialist engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of pathological conditions of the genitourinary system.
Andrologist.Although andrology belongs to a relatively young branch of medicine, specialists in this field are gradually entering the treatment of diseases of the male genitourinary system. The advantage of this doctor is his narrow focus. Unlike a urologist who treats diseases of the male and female genitourinary systems, the andrologist specializes exclusively in male problems.
Diagnosis of bacterial prostatitis
If bacterial prostatitis is suspected, a number of tests are done, including:
- Scrapes and swabs for infection;
- Plants for flora and sensitivity to antibiotics;
- a general blood test will help identify the inflammatory process, when the number of leukocytes increases, an increase in ESR;
- spermogram, which examines a decrease in the number of spermatozoa, a violation of their mobility;
- Three-glass urine sample (examines inflammatory changes in urine);
- general urinalysis;
- Analysis of secretion of the prostate;
- Uroflowmetry - observation of the daily amount of urine.
A digital rectal exam can help doctors assess how much the prostate is enlarged. To clarify the diagnosis, the doctor may refer you for a transrectal ultrasound scan.
Treatment of bacterial prostatitis
As a therapy for bacterial prostatitis, drugs, physiotherapy, folk remedies, and in severe cases, surgery are prescribed.
Medical treatment for prostatitis is carried out using different groups of drugs. These can be antibiotics to neutralize the pathogen. They don't always help, however, as the prostate is characterized by poor absorption of antibiotics from the group of protected penicillins, fluoroquinolones.
The course of treatment usually lasts 10-14 days and it is imperative to complete it because if left untreated, bacterial prostatitis will reappear. Vitamins and drugs are also prescribed to strengthen the immune system.
The doctor will suggest surgery for prostatitis if there is no result in treating a patient with medication, physical therapy, or alternative methods of treatment.
The surgical procedure includes the following procedures:
- Transurethral resection of the prostate.The inner part of the organ is removed. Surgery is the most widely used and best endoscopic treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
To perform this procedure, the patient will take a series of tests, including blood and urine tests. The operation is performed under spinal anesthesia, but general anesthesia can also be used. There are no scars after the operation. Disadvantages include painful urination in the first few days after the procedure.
- Laser treatment.The laser destroys diseased tissue. At the same time, the size of the prostate decreases and the vessels are "sealed" and do not bleed. The operation is performed without incisions and the postoperative time is only three days. Before the procedure, blood and urine tests as well as ultrasound of the urinary tract and, if prescribed by a doctor, a prostate biopsy are carried out.
This method is not effective when the volume of the prostate is large.
- Open prostatectomy.The operation is performed in the case of a greatly enlarged prostate, complications and bladder damage.
The surgeon makes an incision either in the lower abdomen or between the scrotum and anus. Either part of the prostate is removed or it is completely removed.
Before the operation, ultrasound, MRI and cytoscopy as well as blood and urine tests and a prostate-specific antigen test are performed.
One of the advantages of surgery is its effectiveness in treating the prostate and related problems. And from the disadvantages - a long postoperative recovery period (more than a month), as well as problems with erectile function.
- Transurethral incision of the prostate.The doctor does not remove the prostate tissue, but only makes an incision to relieve the urethra and make it easier to urinate. Before the operation, blood and urine tests and an ultrasound of the urinary tract are done.
Advantages of the procedure - prostatitis symptoms are relieved without the risk of retrograde ejaculation, no long-term recovery is required. Of the shortcomings, prostatitis still needs to be treated.
- Drainage of prostate abscess. The doctor opens the abscess through the perineum or rectum, dissects the skin and subcutaneous tissue, and inserts a drain into the cavity with pus to remove it.
Before the operation, a conversation is carried out with a proctologist, blood and urine tests are carried out.
The advantages of the operation include the absence of the risk of loss of sexual functions. The downsides are that the abscess may not be completely removed and bacteria can spread throughout the body.
Surgery for prostatitis in men is usually the last resort for chronic bacterial prostatitis, which is fraught with complications of all kinds.
In the complex treatment of patients diagnosed with prostatitis, physical influence methods are of great importance. Physiotherapy procedures improve the following:
- Blood flow;
- lymphatic drainage, which contributes to the elimination of decomposition products of microorganisms;
- Blood and lymph circulation, as a result of which inflammatory infiltrates are dissolved;
- Outflow of blood and lymph, which helps reduce congestion in the pelvis;
- Activity of cell membranes, which promotes the penetration of active substances into the cell.
Physiotherapy for bacterial prostatitis includes the following methods:
- Electrophoresis.Influence the body with ions, which will reduce inflammation and eliminate pain.
- Laser physiotherapy.The laser relieves perineal pain and improves blood flow to the pelvic organs. It kills bacteria and removes waste products from harmful organisms.
- Magnetic Therapy.When performing this procedure, tissue permeability improves and the effectiveness of drug therapy increases significantly. In addition, hemodynamics and congestion are stopped with the help of magnetic field therapy.
Exercise for bacterial prostatitis
Exercise in chronic prostatitis causes the muscles of the pelvic region to contract, which guarantees a difference in intra-abdominal pressure. This promotes blood flow to the prostate. Exercise strengthens the nervous system, makes the adrenal glands work and eliminates the residual effects of inflammatory diseases of the prostate.
You can do the following exercises at home:
- The man sits down on a rubber ball and rolls gently from left to right. It helps strengthen the pelvic floor muscles and obliques.
- Kegel exercises. Put as much strain on the buttocks as possible for 5-10 seconds, then relax the muscles. This exercise is done 20-50 times.
- Lie on your back with your knees bent and your heels on the floor. Slowly raise your pelvis while keeping your upper back flat on the floor. When the pelvis is at the top point, you need to freeze for 15 seconds, and then return to its original position. The number of repetitions is 10-15 times.
Perform a massage
To achieve the result, exercises are performed daily, which are also supplemented by prostate massage, which can be done both independently and with the help of special massage devices.
Self-massage of the prostate is carried out as follows:
- One hour before the procedure, drink one liter of water to fill the bladder.
- Cleanse the intestines with an enema based on a solution of potassium permanganate or chamomile infusion. The step should be flushed.
- Hands should be washed thoroughly and nails trimmed short.
- You will need to put a glove or condom over the finger that will be used for massage.
- The rubber surface of the protective layer is lubricated with petroleum jelly, grease or baby cream.
- Lie in a comfortable position and insert your finger into the anus to a depth of 5 cm.
- You can feel the prostate on the front wall and begin to stimulate it with light strokes from the sides to the middle.
- In hard places the pressure is gradually increased and in soft places it is reduced.
- In the final stage, stroking movements are carried out downwards along the central sulcus.
- Gently pull your finger out of the anus.
During the massage, 3-5 drops of liquid (prostate juice) should be released. Immediately after the massage, you need to go to the bathroom and empty the bladder.
With prostatitis, it is necessary to reduce the consumption of alcohol and cigarettes as much as possible. Doctors also recommend excluding from the diet:
- fatty foods, especially meat, as fat is a source of "bad" cholesterol, which disrupts blood flow and has a negative effect on the prostate;
- Energy and synthetic drinks;
- spicy and smoked.
It is recommended to eat cooked and steamed foods, lots of vegetables and herbs.
Pumpkin seeds.Pumpkin seeds are an ancient cure for prostatitis. They contain a lot of zinc, which the male body needs. You need to eat 30 seeds a day before meals.
Hazelnut branches.Boil several sprigs of hazelnut with leaves in water for 20 minutes and let it steep until the broth takes on a red-brown color. A weekly course is sufficient for a cure.
Aspen bark.Aspen bark must be collected at the very beginning of the sap flow period, before the buds bloom. This is around the second half of April. Dry the bark in the oven, take 100 g, grind it and put it in a half-liter glass. Pour 200 g of vodka so that the rind is completely covered. Seal the jar and put it in a dark place for 2 weeks. Filter after 2 weeks. Take 1 teaspoon in three three-week courses with a 10-day break.
Bacterial prostatitis prognosis
The prognosis of bacterial prostatitis depends on the stage and type of the disease. The duration of the illness also affects the prognosis - the longer the inflammation lasts, the longer it takes to treat the complications of prostatitis.
In acute prostatitis, the prognosis is favorable. Chronic bacterial prostatitis is often a recurring form, even when conservative therapy is prescribed. Long-term treatment of the chronic form can lead to changes in potency.
Prevention of bacterial prostatitis can be divided into primary and secondary.
Primary prevention of prostatitis:
- healthy lifestyle;
- Good nutrition;
- To do sports.
Preventive measures at home are important - exercises that activate blood flow in problem organs and improve muscle tone.
Men should also learn Kegel exercises. They were designed for postpartum recovery in women, but are used to exercise a man's anal muscles and rectum.
Gymnastic exercises are useful: bike, birch, bridge, candles. You train the pelvic muscles. It is recommended to do leg swings, breath-holding exercises, and a contrast shower.
Secondary prevention of prostatitis:
- regular examination by a urologist, regardless of the manifestations;
- quarterly examinations within a year after treatment, later - once every six months.
Rectal suppositories are used for secondary prevention. They work through the rectum. Usually these drugs have few contraindications. To prevent bacterial prostatitis from recurring, biologically active drugs are also prescribed.
The earlier prostatitis is detected, the easier it is to cure. Therefore, do not neglect regular visits to the doctor. After the diagnosis, the doctor selects the appropriate drugs and prescribes a therapeutic course. As the disease progresses, taking medication in a timely manner will quickly relieve symptoms and help you stay active and functional.